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TURBO C PROGRAMMING

TURBO C PROGRAMMING The History of Turbo C Language
is an Integrated Development Environment and compiler for the C programming language from Borland. Firstintroduced in 1987, it was noted for its integrated development environment, small size, extremely fast compile speed,comprehensive manuals and low price.In May 1990, Borland replaced Turbo C with Turbo C++. In 2006, Borland reintroduced the moniker.The beginningsIn the early 1980s, Borland enjoyed considerable success with their Turbo Pascal product and it became a popular choice

when developing applications for the PC. Borland followed up that success by releasing Turbo Basic, Turbo Prolog andTurbo C.Turbo C had the same properties as Turbo Pascal: an integrated development environment (IDE), a fast compiler, a goodeditor and all that for a cheap price. Nevertheless, Turbo C was not as successful as the Pascal-sister product. First, Cwas not a school language such as Pascal, but rather a language for professional programming and systemsdevelopment. Turbo C was therefore competing with a full field of professional programming tools (Microsoft C, LatticeC, Watcom C, etc.). Turbo C did, however, have advantages in speed of compiled code, the ability for large projects to beimplemented, and compared to competing compilers a very low price.

Version history
Version 1.0

, on May 13, 1987 - It offered the firstintegrated edit-compile-run development environmentfor C on IBM PCs. The software was, like manyBorland products of the time, bought from another company and branded with the "Turbo" name, in this case

Wizard C

by Bob Jervis (The flagship Borlandproduct at that time, Turbo Pascal, which at this timedid not have pull-down menus, would be given a faceliftwith version 4 released late in 1987 to make it look more likeTurbo C.) It ran in 384 kB of memory. It allowed inlineassembly with full access to C symbolic names andstructures, supported all memory models, and offeredoptimizations for speed, size, constant folding, and jumpelimination.

Version 1.5

, in January 1988 - This was anincremental improvement over version 1.0. It included moresample programs, improved manuals and other bug fixes. Itwas shipped on five 360 KB diskettes of uncompressed files, and came with sample C programs, including a strippeddown spreadsheet called mcalc. This version introduced the <conio.h> header file (which provided fast, PC-specificconsole I/O routines). (Note: The copyright date in thestartup screen is 1987, but the files in the systemdistribution were created in January 1988.)

Version 2.0

, in 1989 - The American release was in late1988, and featured the first "blue screen" version, whichwould be typical of all future Borland releases for MS-DOS. The American release did not have Turbo Assembler or a separate debugger. (These were beingsold separately as the product Turbo Assembler.)See this ad for details: Turbo C, Asm, and Debugger were sold together as a professional suite of tools. 

http://www.scribd.com/doc/62396755/The-History-of-Turbo-C 
Some examples of the uses of C are: 
-Operating System
-Language Compliers
-Assemblers
-Text Editors
-Print Spoolers
-Network Devices
-Modem programs
-Databases
-Language Interpreters
-Utilities
Features of C Language
-A simple core language, such as math functions or file handling provided by a standard set of library routines.
-Focus on procedural programming paradigm which facilitates for programming in a structured style.
-Parameters are always passed by value, never by reference.
-C is flexible when it allows unrestricted conversion of data from one type to another, such as conversion of a character to its numeric equivalent.
CHAPTER 1: FLOWCHARTING AND ALGORITHMS
1.1 Flowchart Defined


-"Use of symbols and phrases to designate the logic of how a problem is solved" (SCHN95).
      
-"A common method for defining the logical steps of flow within a program by using a series of symbols to identify the basic Input, Process and Output (IPO's) function within a program" (TRA196).


-"A two-dimensional representation of an algorithm; the predefined graphic symbols of a flowchart are used to indicate the various operations and the flow of control" (SWAZ89).


-"A diagram representing the logical sequence in which a combination of steps or operations is to be performed. It is a blueprint of the program" (LAPU86).


1.2 Algorithm Defined


-"Algorithm is a finite set of instructions that can specify a sequence of operations to be carried out in order to solve a specific problem of class of problems" (SWAZ89).
Terminal Symbol

Used to signify the beginning and end of flowchart
Preparation or Initialization Symbol
Signifies the preparation of data

Used to select initial conditions
Used to represent instructions or group of instructions that will alter or modify a program's course of execution.
Input / Output
"Shows input and output. Data are to be read into the computer memory from an input device or data are to be passed from the memory to an output device" (SWAZ89)
Processing


Performs any calculations that are to be done
Decision
Signifies any decision that are to be done


"Two alternative execution paths are possible. The path to be followed is selected during the execution by testing whether or not the condition specified within the outline is fulfilled" (SWAZ89)
On-page Connector
"Shows the entry or exit point of the flowchart" (SWAZ89)


"A non-processing symbol used to connect one part of a flowchart to another without drawing flowlines" (LAU86).


"Conserves space by keeping related blocks near one another, reduces the number of flowlines in complex programs, and eliminates cros lines from taking place" (LAPU86).
Off-page Connector
"Designates entry to or exit from one page when a flowchart requires more than one page" (LAPU86)
Flowlines
Signifies the process that is to be executed next
Turbo C Environment
Four Parts of Turbo C Environment
1. Main menu
2. Editor status line and edit window
3. Compiler message window
4. "Hot key" quick reference line
Turbo C`s Main Menu

The main menu is used to choose an instructions for the Turbo C what to do.
There are two ways of selecting the main menu, First, by arrow key to move and
highlight the selected menu and followed by pressing the enter button. Second,
by simply hitting the alt key + the desired menu to select.

Example: alt + F for file or alt + P for project.

Menu item with its description:

File - Loads and save files,invokes DOS, and handles directories.
Edit - Invokes the Turbo C Editor.
Run - Compiles, links and runs the program currently loaded in the work area.
Compile - Compiles the program currently in the work area.
Project - Manges multi-file projects.
Options - Sets various compiler, linker, and the environment options.
Debug - Sets various debug options.
Break/watch - Manages debugger watch expressions and break points

Note: if some of the info above are wrong kindly take time to comment for revising the entry.


Submenus under File menu (SCH192)


a. Load-enables the user to select a file to be opened or loaded into the editor.
b. Pick-enables the user to select a file based on the nine files previously opened or edited.
c. New-lets the user edit a new file or start new programs.
d. Save-store or "saves the file currently in the editor" (SCH192).
e. Write to-enables the user to "save a file using a different filename" (SCH192).
g. Change dir-enables the user to specify the defined path to change the default path or directory.
h. OS Shell-"loads the DOS command processor" and lets the user "execute DOS command processor" and lets the user "execute DOS commands" (SCH192).
i. Quit-lets the user to exit or quit Turbo C.
Turbo C Language Hot Keys 


Hot Keys
F1 - Online help
F2 - Saves the current file being edited
F3 - Loads a file
F5 - Zooms the window
F6 - Switches between the window
F7 - Trace
F8 - Step
F9 - Compiles and links your program
F10 - Toggles between the main menu and the editor
Alt-F1 – last help screen
Alt-F3 – allows you to pick a file to load
Alt-F5 – switches between environment screen and output screen
Alt-F7 – previous error
Alt-F8 – next error
Alt-F9 – compiles file to .OBJ
Alt-C – Compile menu
Alt-D – Debug menu
Alt-E – Edit menu
Alt-F – File Menu
Alt-O – Option Menu
Alt-P – Program Menu
Alt-R – Run Menu
Alt-X – Quits Turbo C
Ctrl-F1 – requests help about the item which contains in the cursor
Ctrl-F9 – Runs the program

Data Types for Turbo C 

Data Types
        There are five elementary data types in C: characters (char), integer (int), floating point, double floating point and void. "Values of type char are used to hold ASCII characters or any 8-bit quantity. Variables of type int are used to hold integer quantities. Values of type float and double are used to hold real numbers. Real numbers have both an integer and fractional component. The type void has three uses: The first is to declare explicitly a function as having no parameters. The third is to create generic pointers" (SCHI92).


     Type                       Bidwidth                                              Range
     char                             8                                                0 to 255
     int                              16                                               -32768 to 32767
     float                           32                                               3.4E-38 to 3.4E+38
     double                       64                                               1.7E-308 to 1.7E+308
     void                            0                                                 valueless
Size and Range of Turbo C's Basic Data Types

Type Modifiers
        Except type void, the basic data types may have various modifiers preceding them. "A modifier is used to alter the meaning of the base type to fit the needs of various situations more precisely. The list of modifiers includes the following" (SCHI92:


        signed
        unsigned
        long 
        short


    Type                         Bidwidth                                                Range
    char                             8                                                     -128 to 127
    unsigned char              8                                                      0 to 255
    signed char                  8                                                     -128 to 127
    int                               16                                                   -32768 to 32767
    unsigned int                16                                                    0 to 65535
    signed int                   16                                                    -32768 to 32767
    short int                      16                                                    -32768 to 32767
    unsigned short int       16                                                    0 to 65535
    signed short int           16                                                   -32768 to 32767
    long int                       32                                                   -2147483648 to 2147483647
   unsigned long int         32                                                   0 to 4294967295
   signed long int            32                                                    -2147483648 to 2147483647
   float                            32                                                    3.4E-38 to 3.4E+38
   double                        64                                                    1.7E-308 to 1.7E+308
   long double                64                                                    1/7E-308 to 1.7E+308

Keywords
    Keywords in C are reserved words that have a special meaning. Reserved words "reserved" by the programming language for expressing various statements and constructs. thus, these may not be redefined by the programmer (LIM99).

    auto                        double                     int                   struct
    break                      else                          long                switch
   case                        enum                       register            typedef
   char                        extern                      return              union
   const                       float                         short               unsigned
   continue                 for                            signed             void
   default                    goto                         sizeof               volatile
   do                           if                             static                while
            
VARIABLES, CONSTANTS, OPERATORS, AND EXPRESSIONS
Identifiers Defined
        Identifiers are composed of a sequence of letters, digits, and the special character_(underscore). Avoid using names that are too short or too long. Limit the identifiers from 8 15 characters only (LIM99).
 
Variables Defined
        Variables are identifiers that can store a changeable value. These can be different data types (LIM99).


Rules for defining or naming identifiers/variables
1. It must consist only of letters, digits, and underscore.
        Example: _duh, num_1(correct)
2. It should not begin with a digit.
        Example: 1name, 3to3 (incorrect)
3. An identifier defined in the C standard library should not be redefined.
        Example: printf, scanf (incorrect)
4. It is case sensitive; meaning uppercase is not equal to the lowercase.
      Example: ans ≠ Ans  ≠ aNs or anS or ANs or ANS
5. Do not include embedded blanks.
        Example: large num (incorrect)
6. Do not use of the C-language keywords as your variable / idetifier.
7. Do not call your variable / identifier by the same name as other functions.


Variable Declaration
        All variables must be declared before they may be used. The general form of declaration is shown here:


        Type variable list;


        Example: int i, j, k;
                      short i, j, k;


Note: Before declaring variable, specify first the data type of the variable/s
         Variable must be separated by comma
         All declarations must be terminated by a semicolon (;)


Local Variables
        "Variables that are declared inside a function are called local variables. It can only be referenced by statements that are inside the block in which the variable are declared" (SARR97).

        Example:
                      #include <stdio.h>
                      main()
                          {
                                int a,b,c;    (these are local variables)
                                _________;
                                _________;
                                _________;


Global Variables
           "Global Variable are know throughout the entire program and may be used by any piece of code. Global variables are created by declaring them outside of any function" (SARR97).


         Example:
                       #include <stdio.h>
                                    int a,b,c,        (these are global variables


                       main()
                            {
                                   _____________;
                                   _____________;
                                   _____________;
                             }

Constants Defined
        Constants are identifiers / variables that can store a value that cannot be changed during program execution(LIM99).
        Example:   const int count =100;
                         Where integer count has a fixed value of 100


Arithmetic, Logical, Relational, and Bitwise Operators
        "Operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. There are three classes of operators in C: arithmetic, logical and relational, and bitwise" (SARR97).


Arithmetic Operators


        Operator                            Action
              +                               Addition
              -                                Subtraction
              *                               Multiplication
              /                               Division
              %                               Modulus Divisor
              --                               Decrement a value
              ++                             Increment a value


Relational and logical Operators
        "In the term relational operator, the word relational refers to the relationship values can have with one another. In the term logical operator, the word logical refers to the ways these relationships can be connected together using the rules of formal logic. The key to the concept of relational and logical operators is the idea of true or false" (SCHI92).


Relational Operators


        Operator                                 Action
            >                                   Greater than
            >=                                 Greater than or equal to
            <                                   Less than
            <=                                 Less than or equal to 
            ==                                 Equal
            !=                                  Not equal

Logical Operators


        Operator                           Action                     Truth Table
            &&                                  AND                     true && true = true
                                                                              true && false = false
                                                                              false && true = false
                                                                              false && false =false


             ll                                   OR                        true II true = true
                                                                               true II false = true
                                                                               false II true = true
                                                                               false II false = false


              !                                    NOT                     ! true = false
                                                                               ! false = true


Bitwise Operator

        "Bitwise operations are the testing, setting or shifting of the actual bits in a byte or a word, which corresponds to C's standard char and int data types and variants. Bitwise operators cannot be used on type float, double, long double, void or other more complex types" (SCHI92).


        Operator                               Action
             &                                        AND
             I                                           OR
            ^                                           Exclusive OR (XOR)
             ~                                          One's complement
             >>                                        Shift right
             <<                                        Shift left


The ? Operator
      
             "? Operator is a very powerful and convenient operator that can be used to replace certain statements of the if-then-else form" (SCHI92).


Example:        y=x>9?100:200
             is equivalent to 
               
              if (x>9)
                  y=100;
              else
                  y=200;


Evaluation of Expression
            Expression refers to anything that evaluates to a numeric value (LIM99).


            Order Precedence


              ( )                           Highest
              !,unary+,-
              *,/,%
              binary+,-
              <, <=, >, >=
              ==, !=
              &&
              II                             Lowest

Examples:
A. Evaluate the following:
1. Given: z=5; a=3; b=9; w=2; y=-5
Converting Mathematical Formula to C Expression


         "To solve mathematical problems using the computer, the formula should be translated to the programming language to be used. Arithmetic comutation should be written as C expressions" (LIM99).


Example:
        x and y are  greater than z can be converted to z=x>z&&y>z
        x is equal to 1.0 or 3.0 can be converted to x == 1.0 II x== 3.0
Structure of a Simple C Program

<#include directive>
<#define directive>
main()
{
      <variable declaration section>
      statements
      ...
}


A. #include directive "contains information needed by the program to ensure the
      correct operation of Turbo C's standard library functions" (LIM02)
               Example: #include<stdio.h?
B. #define directive "used to shorten the keywords in the program" (LIM02).
               Example: #define g gotoxy
C. Variable declaration section - "it is the place where you declare your
               variables" (LIM02).
D. Body of the program - "start by typing main() and the { and } (open and close braces). All statements should be written inside the { and } braces" (LIM02).


Note: Turbo C is a case sensitive program, therefore use lowercase letters only.


Commonly used include files in C language (SARR97).


1. alloc.h - declares memory management functions
2. conio.h - declares various functions used in calling IBM-PC ROM BIOS
3. ctype.h - contains information used by the classification and character 
                  conversion macros.
4. math.h - declares prototype for the math functions.
5. stdio.h - defines types and macros needed for standard I/O.
6. string.h - declares several string manipulation and memory manipulation routines.

Important Symbols (SARR97).


\n  - is a line char used to move the cursor to the next line
' '   - single quote is used for single character / letter
" " - double quote is used for two or more character
{    - open curly brace signifies begin
}    - close curly brace signifies end
&   - address of operator
*    - indirection operator / pointer
Input and Output Statements


Input Statement - a statement used to input a single character or a sequence of 
                           characters from the keyboard (SARR97).
1. getch - "a function used to input a single character from the keyboard without
                echoing the character on the monitor" (SARR97).
           Syntax: getch();
           Example: ch=getch();


2. getche - "a function used to input a single character from the keyboard, the
                character pressed echoed on the monitor, like the READLN in PASCAL"
                   (SARR97).
            Syntax: getche();
            Example: ch=getche();


3. getchar  - "a function used to input a single character from the keyboard, the
                   character pressed echoed on the monitor, terminated by pressing
                    ENTER key" (SARR97).
              Syntax: getchar();
              Example: ch=getchar();


4. gets  - "a function used to input sequence of character from the keyboard,
                    spaces are accepted, terminated by pressing enter key" (SARR97).
               Syntax: gets();
               Example: gets(ch);


5. scanf  -"a function used to input single character or sequence of characters 
                      from the keyboard, it needs the control string codes in able to 
                      recognized. Spaces are not accepted upon inputting. 
                Syntax: scanf("control string codes", identifier);
                Example: scanf("%d", &num);



Output Statement  - a statement used to display the argument list or string on
                       the monitor (SARR97).


1. printf  - "a function used to display the argument list on the monitor. It
                 sometimes needs the control string codes to help display the 
                 remaining argument on the screen" (SARR97).


2. putchar  - "a function used to display the argument list or string on the
                       monitor. It is like overwriting a character" (SARR97).
                   Syntax: putchar();
                   Example: putchar(tolower(ch));


3. puts  - "a function used to display the argument list or string on the monitor.
                   It does not need the help of the control string codes" (SARR97).
                    Syntax: puts();
                    Example: puts("hello");

Format Strings and Escape Sequences
          All format specifiers start with a percent sign (%) and are followed by a single letter indicating the type of data and how data re to be formatted (SARRI97).


List of commonly used format specifiers:


%c  - used for single char in C
         scanf("%c", &ch);
         printf("%c", ch);
%d  - decimal number (whole number)
         scanf("%d", &num);
         printf("%d", num);
%e  -scientific notation / exponential form
         scanf("%e", &results);
         printf("%e", result);
%f   - number with floating or decimal point
        scanf("f", &pesos);
        printf(%f", pesos);
%o  - octal number
        scanf("%o", &value);
        printf("%o", value);
%s   -string of characters
        scanf("%s", &str);
        printf("%s", str);
%u  - unsigned number
        scanf("%u", &nos);
        printf("%u", nos);
%x  -hexadecimal number
       scanf("%x", &value);
       printf("%x", value);
%X  - capital number for hexadecimal number
       scanf("%X", &nos);
       printf("%X", nos);
%%  - print a percent sign
       scanf("%%", &value);
       print("%%", value);


List of commonly used escape sequences


        \\     - prints backslash
        \'     - print single quotes
        \"     - print double quotes
        \?     - prints question mark
        \n     newline


Note:     A function gotoxy is used to send the cursor to the specified location.
             Syntax:      gotoxy(x,y);
             Example:   totoxy(5,10);


Examples:


1. Make a program that will display the word "Hello", "I'm fine", and "Thank You" in different lines and column.

#include <stdio.h>
#define g gotoxy
main()
{
clrscr();
printf("Hello");
g(5,2);
printf("I'm Fine");
g(10,3);
printf("Thank You");
getch();
}